A computer network is a collection of autonomous computers that can communicate with each other. To send and receive data through a computer network, it is not sufficient to just connect the computers together with wires in some way. There are certain hardware and software components which have to be employed in order for them the communicate with each other. These components are network operating system, network peripherals, network interface card, network cabling etc.
Type of computer network
Networks can be categorised according to their sizes and how the networks are are constructed. There are three main types of networks :
(1) Local Area Network (LAN)
(2) Metropolitan Area Network (MAN )
(3) Wide Area Network (WAN)
(1) Local Area Network (LAN) :
A network of computers located relative near each other and connected by a cable is a “Local Area Network”. Any network that exists with in a single building, aur even a group of adjacent buildings, is considered a a LAN. A LAN permits all the computers connected to it to share hardware, software and data.TO LAN users, the network is, or should be, completely transparent, which means that the shared devices on it seem to be directly connected to the user’s computer as if the were merely peripherals.
(2) Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) :
Sizewise, a network just larger than LAN is Metropolitan Area networks. This networks is span over the size of a large City. When developing networks that it is span distances of several miles or about the size of the large Metropolitan area, it is necessary to use higher speed link OK than LAN’s. These MAN’s must be designed so that information flow is not affected by failure of links or other minor disruptions such as a major information traffic route being disabled by a accidental cable cutting.
(3) Wide Area Network (WAN) :
a wide area network is two or more LAN or MAN that are connected together, generally across a wide geographical can be created with satellite links, packet radio or microwave transceivers. The internet is the ultimate WAN, science it connects many thousands of computer and LANs around the world.
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Network Topology :
The physical layout of the cables that connect the nodes of the network is called “Network Topology”. The network topology is the way in which the connection are made to connect computers together. There are five basic topologies : Bus, Ring, Star,Tree and mess. Network designers consider a number of factors ine determining which topology to use.
(1) Bus Topology :
In a bus network, there is a single cable to which all the network nodes and peripherals devices are attached. When one computer send a signal up the cable, all the computers on the network receive the information, but only one accepts the information for which the information was transmitted.
Advantages of Bus Topology :
(1) It is simple, easy to use and realisable in very small networks.
(2) It requires the least amount of cable of connect the computers.
(3) It is easy to extend and less expensive that other topologies.
(1) A cable break aur loose connector anywhere between two computers can cause the entire network to stop.
(2) Heavy network traffic can slow down the data transfer.
(3) Each barrel connector weakens the electrical signal.
(1) Star Topology :
In Star topology, all the cables run from the computers to a central location. Where they are all connected by a device called a Hub. Network computers to groups of data through the hub to their destination.
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(1) It is easy to modify and add new computers to network without disturbing the rest of the network.
(2) Network faults can be diagnosed at a hub.
(3) Single computer aur cable fault do not down the entire network.
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(1) if the central hub fails, the whole network fails to operate.
(2) It cost more to cable a star network.
(3) Ring Topology :
the ring topology connects the nodes of the network in a circular chain in which each node is connected to the next. A short message called a token is passed around the ring until a computer wishes to send information to another computer. All computers pass the token forward until it gets to the computer whose address the token has. The message is accepted by the receiver and the token is made free again.
(1) There is no danger of collisions because data always flows in one direction.
(2) No one computer can monopolize the network.
(3) As more nodes are added to the network, network may slow down but it does not fail due to excess capacity.
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(1) Failure of one computer on the ring can affect the whole network.
(2) It is difficult to troubleshoot.
(3) Adding or removing notes disrupts the network.
(4) Tree Topology :
It is also known a hierarichical network. The main control may be assigned to one note called root node. In this topology, the total branch length relative to the star topology.
(1) The root node needs not be directly connected to all chield nodes.
(2) The reliability of network has improve using more than one root node.
(1) if any part of the connection the youth is used by another pair of nodes, there is no alternative paath to communicate.
(5) Mess Topology :
This topology is fully connected topology. Each node is directly aur partially connected to every other node. Each node has a point-to-point link, with each other node. It is the combination of ring, bus and star topologies.
(1) It gives the alternative routes between nodes to communicate.
(2) It is the fastest transmission over the others.
(1) The total branch length can be increased.
(2) The cost of preparing this topology is too high than other topologies.
this project provides us the information of computer networking and also about the different topology is used for networking.
Ques.1 What are protocols?
Ans.Protocols are the set of rules that govern the exchange of data over a network communication.
Ques.2 What are the benefits of computer networking?
Ans. The benefits of computer networking are sharing of resources, data and information economic and reliability of sending receiving data.
Ques.3 Define the term ‘Server’?
Ans. Server is the main computer of network, which provides information to the other computer connected on the network.
Ques.4 What is Peer-to-Peer network?
Ans. Pee-to-Peer network shows the absence of server in in network and all the computers share data and resources according to need.